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Why is Alkgem alkaline water so important?

Learning what’s in your water and the benefits of alkaline water is very important. Below we have gathered case studies to educate everyone on the benefits of alkaline ionized water.

Case Studies

1.Akhavan, O., et al., Hydrogen-rich water for green reduction of graphene oxide suspensions. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015. 40(16): p. 5553-5560.

2.Berjak, P., et al., Cathodic amelioration of the adverse effects of oxidative stress accompanying procedures necessary for cryopreservation of embryonic axes of recalcitrant-seeded species. Seed Science Research, 2011. 21(3): p. 187-203.

3.Hanaoka, K., Antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2001. 31(12): p. 1307-1313.

4.Hanaoka, K., et al., The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis. Biophysical Chemistry, 2004. 107(1): p. 71-82.

5.Hiraoka, A., et al., In Vitro Physicochemical Properties of Neutral Aqueous Solution Systems (Water Products as Drinks) Containing Hydrogen Gas, 2-Carboxyethyl Germanium Sesquioxide, and Platinum Nanocolloid as Additives. Journal of Health Science, 2010. 56(2): p. 167-174.

6.Hiraoka, A., et al., Studies on the properties and real existence of aqueous solution systems that are assumed to have antioxidant activities by the action of “active hydrogen”‘. Journal of Health Science, 2004. 50(5): p. 456-465.

7.Kato, S., D. Matsuoka, and N. Miwa, Antioxidant activities of nano-bubble hydrogen-dissolved water assessed by ESR and 2, 2′-bipyridyl methods. Materials Science and Engineering:, 2015. C 53: p. 7-10.

8.Lee, M.Y., et al., Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2006. 135(2): p. 133-44.

9.Ohsawa, I., et al., Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med, 2007. 13(6): p. 688-694.

10.Ohta, S., Molecular hydrogen as a novel antioxidant: overview of the advantages of hydrogen for medical applications. Methods Enzymol, 2015. 555: p. 289-317.

11.Park, E.J., et al., Protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the paraquat-induced oxidative damage of human lymphocyte DNA. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied

Biological Chemistry, 2005. 48(2): p. 155-160.

12.Park, S.K., et al., Electrolyzed-reduced water confers increased resistance to environmental stresses. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology, 2012. 8(3): p. 241-247.

13.Park, S.K. and S.K. Park, Electrolyzed-reduced water increases resistance to oxidative stress, fertility, and lifespan via insulin/IGF-1-like signal in C. elegans. Biol Res, 2013. 46(2): p. 147-52.

14.Penders, J., R. Kissner, and W.H. Koppenol, ONOOH does not react with H2. Free Radic Biol Med, 2014.

15.Qian, L., et al., Administration of hydrogen-rich saline protects mice from lethal acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Transplantation, 2013. 95(5): p. 658-62.

16.Shi, Q.H., et al., Hydrogen Therapy Reduces Oxidative Stress-associated Risks Following Acute and Chronic Exposure to High-altitude Environment. Biomed Environ Sci, 2015. 28(3): p. 239-41.

17.Shirahata, S., et al., Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 1997. 234(1): p. 269-274.

18.Yan, H., et al., Mechanism of the lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans by electrolyzed reduced water–participation of Pt nanoparticles. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 2011. 75(7): p. 1295-9.

19.Yan, H., et al., electrolyzed reduced water prolongs caenorhabditis elegans lifespan, in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. 2010, Springer Netherlands. p. 289-293.

20.Yan, H.X., et al., Extension of the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by the Use of Electrolyzed Reduced Water. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 2010. 74(10): p. 2011-2015.

21.Yanagihara, T., et al., Electrolyzed hydrogen-saturated water for drinking use elicits an antioxidative effect: a feeding test with rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2005. 69(10): p. 1985-7.

22.Cai, W.W., et al., Treatment with hydrogen molecule alleviates TNFalpha-induced cell injury in osteoblast. Mol Cell Biochem, 2013. 373(1-2): p. 1-9.

23.Fujita, R., et al., Effect of molecular hydrogen saturated alkaline electrolyzed water on disuse muscle atrophy in gastrocnemius muscle. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 2011. 30(5): p. 195-201.

24.Guo, J.D., et al., Hydrogen water consumption prevents osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Br J Pharmacol, 2013. 168(6): p. 1412-20.

25.Hanaoka, T., et al., Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1(1): p. 18.

26.Itoh, T., et al., Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma-induced nitric oxide production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2011. 411(1): p. 143-9.

27.Kawasaki, H., J.J. Guan, and K. Tamama, Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2010. 397(3): p. 608-613.

28.Kubota, M., et al., Hydrogen and N-acetyl-L-cysteine rescue oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis in a mouse corneal alkali-burn model. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2011. 52(1): p. 427-33.

29.Lekic, T., et al., Protective effect of hydrogen gas therapy after germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal rats. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 2011. 111: p. 237-41.

30.Li, D.Z., et al., Treatment with hydrogen molecules prevents RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of ROS formation and inactivation of MAPK, AKT and NF-kappa B pathways in murine RAW264.7 cells. J Bone Miner Metab, 2013.

31.Sun, Y., et al., Treatment of hydrogen molecule abates oxidative stress and alleviates bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats. Osteoporos Int, 2013. 24(3): p. 969-78.

32.Takeuchi, S., et al., Hydrogen may inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation: an ex vivo and in vivo study. Internal Medicine, 2012. 51(11): p. 1309-13.

33.Xu, Z., et al., Anti-inflammation effects of hydrogen saline in LPS activated macrophages and carrageenan induced paw oedema. J Inflamm (Lond), 2012. 9: p. 2.

34.Yuan, L., et al., Administration of hydrogen-rich saline in mice with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Med Sci Monit, 2015. 21: p. 749-54.

35.Bari, F., et al., Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Protects Cerebrovascular Reactivity Against Moderate but Not Severe Perinatal Hypoxic Injury in Newborn Piglets. Stroke, 2010. 41(4): p. E323-E323.

36.Cui, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates neuronal ischemia-reperfusion injury by protecting mitochondrial function in rats. J Surg Res, 2014.

37.Dohi, K., et al., Molecular Hydrogen in Drinking Water Protects against Neurodegenerative Changes Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury. PLoS One, 2014. 9(9): p. e108034.

38.Domoki, F., et al., Hydrogen is Neuroprotective and Preserves Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Asphyxiated Newborn Pigs. Pediatric Research, 2010. 68(5): p. 387-392.

39.Eckermann, J.M., et al., Hydrogen is neuroprotective against surgically induced brain injury. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1(1): p. 7.

40.Feng, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline prevents early neurovascular dysfunction resulting from inhibition of oxidative stress in STZ-diabetic rats. Curr Eye Res, 2013. 38(3): p. 396-404.

41.Fu, Y., et al., Molecular hydrogen is protective against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience Letters, 2009. 453: p. 81–85.

42.Fujita, K., et al., Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. PLoS One, 2009. 4(9): p. e7247.

43.Gu, Y., et al., Drinking Hydrogen Water Ameliorated Cognitive Impairment in Senescence-Accelerated Mice. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 2010. 46(3): p. 269-276.

44.Han, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich water protects against ischemic brain injury in rats by regulating calcium buffering proteins. Brain Res, 2015.

45.Hong, Y., et al., Beneficial effect of hydrogen-rich saline on cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. J Neurosci Res, 2012. 90(8): p. 1670-80.

46.Hong, Y., et al., Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against neurologic damage and apoptosis in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage: possible role of the Akt/GSK3beta signaling pathway. PLoS One, 2014. 9(4): p. e96212.

47.Hou, Z., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline protects against oxidative damage and cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Res Bull, 2012. 88(6): p. 560-5.

48.Huang, G., et al., The neuroprotective effects of intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen in rabbits with cardiac arrest. Resuscitation, 2013. 84(5): p. 690-5.

49.Hugyecz, M., et al., Hydrogen supplemented air inhalation reduces changes of prooxidant enzyme and gap junction protein levels after transient global cerebral ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Brain Research, 2011. 1404: p. 31-8.

50.Ito, M., et al., Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats. Med Gas Res, 2012. 2(1): p. 15.

51.Ji, X., et al., Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress. Brain Research, 2010. 1354: p. 196-205.

52.Ji, X., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress. Journal of Surgical Research, 2012. 178(1): p. e9-16.

53.Kashiwagi, T., et al., Suppression of Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Neuronal Cells by Electrolyzed-Reduced Water. Animal Cell Technology Meets Genomics, 2005. 2: p. 257-260.

54.Kashiwagi, T., et al., Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2014. 2014: p. 869121.

55.Kobayashi, H., et al., Effects of Hydrogen Gas in a Mouse Cold Induced Brain Injury Model. Journal of Neurotrauma, 2011. 28(5): p. A64-A64.

56.Kuroki, C., et al., Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: alpha P-31-NMR study. Neuroscience Research, 2009. 65: p. S124-S124.

57.Kuroki, C., et al., Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: A P-31-NMR and ESR study. Neuroscience Research, 2011. 71: p. E406-E406.

58.Li, J., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease by reduction of oxidative stress. Brain Res, 2010. 1328: p. 152-161.

59.Liu, F.T., et al., Molecular Hydrogen Suppresses Reactive Astrogliosis Related to Oxidative Injury during Spinal Cord Injury in Rats. CNS Neurosci Ther, 2014.

60.Liu, L., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates brain injury in mice with cecal ligation and puncture via inhibiting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. Brain Res, 2014. 1589: p. 78-92.

61.Liu, W., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen on fetal brain injury during maternal hypoxia. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 2011. 111: p. 307-11.

62.Manaenko, A., et al., Hydrogen inhalation is neuroprotective and improves functional outcomes in mice after intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 2011. 111: p. 179-83.

63.Manaenko, A., et al., Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell-mediated brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Critical Care Medicine, 2013. 41(5): p. 1266-75.

64.Mano, Y., et al., Maternal molecular hydrogen administration ameliorates rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by in utero ischemia-reperfusion. Free Radic Biol Med, 2014. 69: p. 324-30.

65.Matsumoto, A., et al., Oral ‘hydrogen water’ induces neuroprotective ghrelin secretion in mice. Sci Rep, 2013. 3: p. 3273.

66.Mei, K., et al., Hydrogen protects rats from dermatitis caused by local radiation. J Dermatolog Treat, 2014. 25(2): p. 182-8.

67.Nagata, K., et al., Consumption of Molecular Hydrogen Prevents the Stress-Induced Impairments in Hippocampus-Dependent Learning Tasks during Chronic Physical Restraint in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2009. 34(2): p. 501-508.

68.Olah, O., et al., Delayed neurovascular dysfunction is alleviated by hydrogen in asphyxiated newborn pigs. Neonatology, 2013. 104(2): p. 79-86.

69.Ono, H., et al., Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and hydrogen, as compared to Edaravone alone. A non-controlled study. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1(1): p. 12.

70.Ostojic, S.M., Targeting molecular hydrogen to mitochondria: Barriers and gateways. Pharmacol Res, 2015. 94: p. 51-3. (brain)

71.Pshenichnyuk, S.A. and A.S. Komolov, Dissociative Electron Attachment to Resveratrol as a Likely Pathway for Generation of the H2 Antioxidant Species Inside Mitochondria. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2015. 6(7): p. 1104-1110.

72.Sato, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents superoxide formation in brain slices of vitamin C-depleted SMP30/GNL knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2008. 375(3): p. 346-350.

73.Shen, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline is cerebroprotective in a rat model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Neurochemical Research, 2011. 36(8): p. 1501-11.

74.Shen, M.H., et al., Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline in acute carbon monoxide poisoning. CNS Neurosci Ther, 2013. 19(5): p. 361-3.

75.Spulber, S., et al., Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice. PLoS One, 2012. 7(7): p. e42078.

76.Sun, Q., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline reduces delayed neurologic sequelae in experimental carbon monoxide toxicity. Critical Care Medicine, 2011. 39(4): p. 765-9.

77.Takeuchi, S., et al., Hydrogen improves neurological function through attenuation of blood-brain barrier disruption in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. BMC Neurosci, 2015. 16(1): p. 22. (brain)

78.Ueda, Y., A. Nakajima, and T. Oikawa, Hydrogen-Related Enhancement of In Vivo Antioxidant Ability in the Brain of Rats Fed Coral Calcium Hydride. Neurochemical Research, 2010. 35(10): p. 1510-1515.

79.Wang, C., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline reduces oxidative stress and inflammation by inhibit of JNK and NF-kappaB activation in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience Letters, 2011. 491(2): p. 127-32.

80.Wang, T., et al., Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2014.

81.Wang, W., et al., Hydrogen rich saline reduces immune-mediated brain injury in rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Neurological Research, 2012. 34(10): p. 1007-15.

82.Xie, F. and X. Ma, Molecular Hydrogen and its Potential Application in Therapy of Brain Disorders. Brain Disord Ther, 2014: p. 2.

83.Yan, H., et al., The neuroprotective effects of electrolyzed reduced water and its model water containing molecular hydrogen and Pt nanoparticles. BMC Proc, 2011. 5 Suppl 8: p. P69.

84.Yamada, T., et al., Hydrogen supplementation of preservation solution improves viability of osteochondral grafts. ScientificWorldJournal, 2014. 2014: p. 109876. (bones)

85.Yokoi, I., Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: a P-31 NMR and ESR study. Neuroscience Research, 2010. 68: p. E320-E320.

86.Zhan, Y., et al., Hydrogen gas ameliorates oxidative stress in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Critical Care Medicine, 2012. 40(4): p. 1291-6.

87.Zhang, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline controls remifentanil-induced hypernociception and NMDA receptor NR1 subunit membrane trafficking through GSK-3beta in the DRG in rats. Brain Res Bull, 2014. 106C: p. 47-55.

88.Zhou, J., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline reverses oxidative stress, cognitive impairment, and mortality in rats submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture. Journal of Surgical Research, 2012. 178(1): p. 390-400.

89.Zhuang, Z., et al., Nuclear factor-kappaB/Bcl-XL pathway is involved in the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the brain following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits. J Neurosci Res, 2013. 91(12): p. 1599-608.

90.Zhuang, Z., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates early brain injury via reducing oxidative stress and brain edema following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits. BMC Neurosci, 2012. 13: p. 47.

91.Akio Kagawa, K.K., Masayuki Mizumoto, Yutaka Tagawa, Yoichi Masiko, Influence of Hydrogen Discharged from Palladium Base Hydrogen Storage Alloys on Cancer Cells. Materials Science Forum, 2012. 706: p. 520-525.

91.Asada, R., et al., Antitumor effects of nano-bubble hydrogen-dissolved water are enhanced by coexistent platinum colloid and the combined hyperthermia with apoptosis-like cell death. Oncol Rep, 2010. 24(6): p. 1463-70.

92.Chen, Y., et al., On the antitumor properties of biomedical magnesium metal. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2015. 3(5): p. 849-858.

93.Dole, M., F.R. Wilson, and W.P. Fife, Hyperbaric hydrogen therapy: a possible treatment for cancer. Science, 1975. 190(4210): p. 152-4.

94.Jun, Y., et al., Suppression of invasion of cancer cells and angiogenesis by electrolyzed reduced water. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, 2004. 40: p. 79A-79A.

95.Kinjo, T., et al., Suppressive effects of electrochemically reduced water on matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities and in vitro invasion of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Cytotechnology, 2012. 64(3): p. 357-371.

96.Komatsu, T., Katakura, Y., Teruya, K., Otsubo, K., Morisawa, S., & and S. Shirahata, Electrolyzed reduced water induces differentiation in K-562 human leukemia cells. Animal cell technology: Basic & applied aspects, 2003: p. 387-391.

97.LEE, K.-J., et al., Anticancer Effect of Alkaline Reduced Water. J Int Soc Life Inf Sci, 2004. 22(2): p. 302-305.

98.Matsushita, T., et al., Investigation of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging. Jpn J Radiol, 2011. 29(7): p. 503-12.

99.Matsuzaki, M., et al., Mechanism of Cancer Cell Death Induced by Hydrogen Discharged from Palladium Base Hydrogen Storage Alloy, in Materials Science and Chemical Engineering 2013. p. 284-290.

100.Motoishi, A., et al., Influence of Active Hydrogen Discharged from Palladium-Nickel Alloy Powder on Biological Cells. Advanced Materials Research, 2013. 669: p. 273-278.

101.Nakanishi, K., et al., growth suppression of HL60 and L6 cells by atomic hydrogen, in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects, . 2010, Springer Netherlands. p. 323-325.

102.Nakashima-Kamimura, N., et al., Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 2009.

103.Nan, M., C. Yangmei, and Y. Bangcheng, Magnesium metal-A potential biomaterial with antibone cancer properties. J Biomed Mater Res A, 2014. 102(8): p. 2644-51.

104.Nishikawa, H., et al., Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water containing platinum nanoparticles, in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. 2006, Springer Netherlands. p. 113-119.

105.Nishikawa, R., et al., Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation. Cytotechnology, 2005. 47(1-3): p. 97-105.

106.Nishikawa, R., et al., Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water/platinum nanocolloids. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, 2004. 40: p. 79A-79A.

107.Roberts, B.J., et al., Response of five established solid transplantable mouse tumors and one mouse leukemia to hyperbaric hydrogen. Cancer Treat Rep, 1978. 62(7): p. 1077-9.

108.Runtuwene, J., et al., Hydrogen-water enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced inhibition of colon cancer. PeerJ, 2015. 3: p. e859.

109.Shirahata, S.K., K. Kusumoto, M. Gotoh, K. Teruya, K. Otsubo, J. S. Morisawa, H. Hayashi, K. Katakura, Electrolyzed Reduced Water Which Can Scavenge Active Oxygen Species Suppresses Cell Growth and Regulates Gene Expression of Animal Cells. New Developments and New Applications in Animal Cell Technology, 2002: p. 93-96.

110.Saitoh, Y., et al., Neutral pH Hydrogen-Enriched Electrolyzed Water Achieves Tumor-Preferential Clonal Growth Inhibition Over Normal Cells and Tumor Invasion Inhibition Concurrently With Intracellular Oxidant Repression. Oncology Research, 2008. 17(6): p. 247-255.

111.Saitoh, Y., et al., Platinum nanocolloid-supplemented hydrogen dissolved water inhibits growth of human tongue carcinoma cells preferentially over normal cells. Exp Oncol, 2009. 31(3): p. 156-62.

112.Tsai, C.F., et al., Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2009. 73(2): p. 280-7.

113.Ye, J., et al., Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2008. 31(1): p. 19-26.

114.Chen, L., et al., Hydrogen-Saturated Saline Protects Intensive Narrow Band Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs through an Antioxidant Effect. PLoS One, 2014. 9(6): p. e100774.

115.Feng, M., et al., Protective effect of saturated hydrogen saline against blue light-induced retinal damage in rats. Int J Ophthalmol, 2012. 5(2): p. 151-7.

116.Huang, L., et al., Hydrogen saline treatment attenuates hyperoxia-induced retinopathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and reduction of VEGF expression. Ophthalmic Res, 2012. 47(3): p. 122-7.

117.Kashiwagi, T., et al., Suppression of glutamate-induced neural cell death by electrolyzed-reduced water, in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. 2004, Springer Netherlands. p. 105-109.

118.Kikkawa, Y.S., et al., Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from free radicals. Neuroreport, 2009. 20(7): p. 689-94.

119.Kurioka, T., et al., Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss through reducing reactive oxygen species. Neurosci Res, 2014.

120.Lin, Y., et al., Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience Letters, 2011. 487(1): p. 12-16.

121.Moossavi, A., F. Bagheri, and H.R. Farkhani, Capabilities of hydrogen Molecules for use in the prevention and treatment in noise induced hearing loss. Rehabilitation Medicine 2014. 2(4).

122.Oharazawa, H., et al., Protection of the Retina by Rapid Diffusion of Hydrogen: Administration of Hydrogen-Loaded Eye Drops in Retinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2010. 51(1): p. 487-492.

123.Qu, J., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates ouabain-induced auditory neuropathy in gerbils. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 2012. 33(4): p. 445-451.

124.Qu, J., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity via reducing oxidative stress. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2012. 76(1): p. 111-5.

125.Sun, J.C., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of optic nerve crush. PLoS One, 2014. 9(6): p. e99299.

126.Taura, A., et al., Hydrogen protects vestibular hair cells from free radicals. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 2010. 130: p. 95-100.

127.Tian, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the retina against light-induced damage in rats. Med Gas Res, 2013. 3(1): p. 19.

128.Xiao, X., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen saline on diabetic retinopathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2012. 28(1): p. 76-82.

129.Yang, C.X., H. Yan, and T.B. Ding, Hydrogen saline prevents selenite-induced cataract in rats. Molecular Vision, 2013. 19: p. 1684-93.

130.Yokota, T., et al., Protective effect of molecular hydrogen against oxidative stress caused by peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide in rat retina. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol, 2015.

131.Zhou, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates experimental noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience, 2012. 209: p. 47-53.

338.Abe, T., et al., Hydrogen-rich University of Wisconsin solution attenuates renal cold ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transplantation, 2012. 94(1): p. 14-21.

339.Cardinal, J.S., et al., Oral hydrogen water prevents chronic allograft nephropathy in rats. Kidney International, 2010. 77(2): p. 101-9.

340.Homma, K., et al., Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Is Beneficial for Preventing Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats. Nephron Exp Nephrol, 2015.

341.Gu, H., et al., Pretreatment with hydrogen-rich saline reduces the damage caused by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in rats. J Surg Res, 2014. 188(1): p. 243-9.

342.Katakura, M., et al., Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and alpha,beta -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney. Medical Gas Research, 2012. 2(1): p. 18.

343.Kato, S., et al., Colloidal platinum in hydrogen-rich water exhibits radical-scavenging activity and improves blood fluidity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2012. 12(5): p. 4019-27.

344.Kitamura, A., et al., Experimental verification of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. British Journal of Radiology, 2010. 83(990): p. 509-514.

345.Liu, W., et al., A novel fluid resuscitation protocol: provide more protection on acute kidney injury during septic shock in rats. Int J Clin Exp Med, 2014. 7(4): p. 919-26.

346.Matsushita, T., et al., Protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging. Magn Reson Med Sci, 2011. 10(3): p. 169-76.

347.Nakayama, M., et al., Less-oxidative hemodialysis solution rendered by cathode-side application of electrolyzed water. Hemodial Int, 2007. 11(3): p. 322-7.

348.Ohaski, Y., et al., Electrolyzed water reduces urinary protein excretion in the streptozotocin induced diabetic Dahl salt sensitive rats. The FASEB Journal, 2008. 22: p. 947.17.

349.Terawaki, H., et al., Effect of a hydrogen (H2)-enriched solution on the albumin redox of hemodialysis patients. Hemodial Int, 2014. 18(2): p. 459-66.

350.Terawaki, H., et al., Successful treatment of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis by hemodialysis and peritoneal lavage using dialysate containing dissolved hydrogen. Perit Dial Int, 2015. 35(1): p. 107-12.

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517.Chuai, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates radiation-induced male germ cell loss in mice through reducing hydroxyl radicals. Biochemical Journal, 2012. 442(1): p. 49-56.

518.Chuai, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline protects spermatogenesis and hematopoiesis in irradiated BALB/c mice. Med Sci Monit, 2012. 18(3): p. BR89-94.

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522.Jiang, Z., et al., Protection by hydrogen against gamma ray-induced testicular damage in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 2013. 112(3): p. 186-91.

523.Kato, S., et al., Hydrogen-rich electrolyzed warm water represses wrinkle formation against UVA ray together with type-I collagen production and oxidative-stress diminishment in fibroblasts and cell-injury prevention in keratinocytes. J Photochem Photobiol B, 2012. 106: p. 24-33.

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534.Yoon, Y.S., et al., Positive Effects of hydrogen water on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Biol Pharm Bull, 2014. 37(9): p. 1480-5.

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